Last Updated: Friday, 27 May 2016, 08:49 GMT

U.S. Department of State 2004 Trafficking in Persons Report - Zambia

Publisher United States Department of State
Author Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
Publication Date 14 June 2004
Cite as United States Department of State, U.S. Department of State 2004 Trafficking in Persons Report - Zambia, 14 June 2004, available at: [accessed 28 May 2016]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Zambia (Tier 2 Watch List)

Zambia is a source and transit country for women and children trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Child prostitution exists in most urban centers and constitutes the country's most serious trafficking problem. Anecdotal reports suggest that small numbers of Zambian women, lured by fraudulent offers of employment or marriage, may be trafficked to South Africa for forced prostitution. Zambia is reportedly also a transit point for regional trafficking of women to South Africa. There have been few verified cases of trafficking involving Zambia and there are no reliable estimates of the number of women trafficked from or through Zambia.

The Government of the Zambia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making efforts to do so. Zambia has been placed on Tier 2 Watch List for lack of evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking from the previous year, particularly in regard to protection of children trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation. The government should institute assistance programs to meet the specific needs of child prostitutes, including vigorously addressing the root causes of this phenomenon and providing viable alternatives to victims.


The government does not have a comprehensive trafficking law. Several sections of the Zambian Penal Code criminalize various forms of sexual exploitation, particularly the abduction of women, procurement of women for prostitution, and engaging in sex with girls younger than 16. Slavery and forced labor are prohibited by the constitution, as is the trafficking of children under the age of 15. Child labor legislation is being drafted that would prohibit all forms of slavery and procuring or offering a child for illicit activities, including prostitution. An officer at the Zambia Police Service is responsible for human trafficking cases. In February 2003, Irish authorities found two refugee girls that had been trafficked from Zambia to Ireland. A criminal prosecution against the accused trafficker, a Congolese national, is underway in Zambia.


The government has made minimal efforts to protect trafficking victims. In 2003, through its social welfare agencies, the government provided counseling, shelter, and protection to two girls that had been trafficked to Ireland. It provides some building space for NGOs assisting child prostitutes and protective custody and security for trafficking victims and witnesses.


In 2003, the Ministries of Labor and Information and Broadcasting presented public sensitization and awareness-raising programs on child labor laws and exploitative work. The government organized workshops on child labor and child prostitution for civil society that addressed removal and reintegration. It further publicized the problem of exploitative child labor through posters, billboards, drama, athletic competitions, television and radio programs, and celebrity publicity. In partnership with a local NGO, the government registered and repatriated 66 street children from Lusaka to their home villages.

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