Freedom in the World - Seychelles (2002)
|Publication Date||18 December 2001|
|Cite as||Freedom House, Freedom in the World - Seychelles (2002), 18 December 2001, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/473c53ee8.html [accessed 23 May 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Polity: Presidential-parliamentary democracy
Life Expectancy: 70
Religious Groups: N/A
Ethnic Groups: Seychellois (mixture of Asian, African, and European)
Political Rights Score: 3
Civil Liberties Score: 3
Status: Partly Free
President France Albert Rene and his ruling Seychelles People's Progressive Front (SPPF) party's political dominance was shaken in 2001. In an August 2001 presidential election, Rene won a narrow victory that engendered widespread opposition complaints of fraud. Otherwise, 2001 was a generally calm year for Seychelles. The government continued to implement its own home-grown form of economic liberalization.
Seychelles, an archipelago of some 115 islands in the western Indian Ocean, was a French colony until 1810. It was then colonized by Britain until independence in 1976. The country functioned as a multiparty democracy for only one year until Rene, then prime minister, seized power by ousting President James Mancham. Mancham and other opposition leaders operated parties and human rights groups in exile after Rene made his SPPF the sole legal party. Rene and his party continue to control government jobs, contracts, and resources. Rene won one-party "show" elections in 1979, 1984, and 1989. By 1992, however, the SPPF had passed a constitutional amendment to legalize opposition parties, and many exiled leaders returned to participate in a constitutional commission and multiparty elections.
Rene won a legitimate electoral mandate in the country's first multiparty elections in 1993. The 1998 polls were accepted as generally legitimate by opposition parties, which had waged a vigorous campaign. The Seychelles National Party (SNP) of the Reverend Wavel Ramkalawan emerged as the strongest opposition group by espousing economic liberalization, which Rene had resisted.
President Rene also heads the country's defense and interior ministries. Vice President James Michel, who also heads a number of ministries, has assumed a more prominent role in daily government affairs and has been viewed as Rene's likely successor. In a recent government reshuffle, however, Michel lost the portfolio of economic planning while conserving his other responsibilities as minister of finance, environment, land, and transport.
Political Rights and Civil Liberties
The president and the national assembly are elected by universal adult suffrage for five-year terms. As amended in 1996, the 1993 constitution provides for a 34-member national assembly, with 25 members directly elected and 9 allocated on a proportional basis to parties with at least ten percent of the vote. Other amendments have strengthened presidential powers. Local governments composed of district councils were reconstituted in 1991 after their abolition two decades earlier.
In the 2001 presidential election, the opposition increased its vote total from 20 percent to 45 percent. President France Albert Rene's victory was marred by widespread opposition claims that the government had cheated. The SNP subsequently filed a complaint with the Seychelles Constitutional Court, citing irregularities linked to the extension of the incumbent's campaign beyond the official period, the posting of false information on a number of websites, the committing of acts of intimidation against voters, and the use of votes attributed to deceased or underaged persons whose names were uncovered on the lists of registered voters.
In previous presidential and legislative elections in March 1998, the Seychellois people were able to exercise their democratic right to choose their representatives. As in recent elections, however, SPPF control over state resources and most media gave ruling-party candidates significant advantages in the polls.
The judiciary includes a supreme court, a constitutional court, a court of appeals, an industrial court, and magistrates' courts. Judges generally decide cases fairly, but still face interference in cases involving major economic or political actors. There are no Seychellois judges, and the impartiality of the non-Seychellois magistrates can be compromised by the fact that their tenure is subject to contract renewal.
Two private human rights-related organizations (Friends for a Democratic Society and the Center for Rights and Development) operate in the country along with other nongovernmental organizations. Churches in this predominantly Roman Catholic nation have also been strong voices for human rights and democratization, and generally function without government interference. Discrimination against foreign workers has been reported. Security forces have been accused of using excessive force, including torture and arbitrary detention, especially in attempting to curb crime.
Freedom of speech has improved since one-party rule ended in 1993, but self-censorship persists. There is one daily government newspaper, The Nation, and at least two other newspapers support or are published by the SPPF. Independent newspapers are sharply critical of the government, but government dominance and the threat of libel suits restrict media freedom. Opposition parties publish several newsletters and other publications. The opposition weekly Regar has been sued repeatedly for libel under broad constitutional restrictions on free expression. The government-controlled Seychelles Broadcasting Corporation, however, provided substantial coverage to opposition as well as government candidates during the last elections.
Women are less likely than men to be literate, and they have fewer educational opportunities. While almost all adult females are classified as "economically active," most are engaged in subsistence agriculture. Domestic violence against women is reportedly widespread, but is rarely prosecuted and only lightly punished. Islanders of Creole extraction face de facto discrimination. Nearly all of Seychelles' political and economic life is dominated by people of European and Asian origin. Approximately 34 percent of the total population is under 15 years of age.
The right to strike is formally protected by the 1993 Industrial Relations Act, but is limited by several regulations. The SPPF-associated National Workers' Union no longer monopolizes union activity. Two independent unions are now active. The government does not restrict domestic travel, but may deny passports for reasons of "national interest." Religious freedom is respected.
Seychelles has few natural resources and little industry. The economy is statist and the Seychelles Marketing Board has a monopoly on a wide range of staple foods. There are major foreign exchange regulations. The government has begun to diversify the economy and move it away from its heavy reliance on tourism, which contributed 70 percent of foreign exchange earnings in 1999.
Seychelles received a downward trend arrow due to credible opposition complaints of fraud during the 2001 presidential election.