Jordan: Whether Hamas persecute, kidnap, torture or abuse with impunity Jordanian citizens who disagree with its methods, policies and ideology
|Publisher||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada|
|Publication Date||25 October 2000|
|Citation / Document Symbol||JOR35666.E|
|Cite as||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Jordan: Whether Hamas persecute, kidnap, torture or abuse with impunity Jordanian citizens who disagree with its methods, policies and ideology, 25 October 2000, JOR35666.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3df4be501d.html [accessed 25 May 2017]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
No information on whether Hamas' retaliate against Jordanian citizens who disagree with their methods could be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
However, in August 1999, the Jordanian authorities, fearing that the presence of "radical Islamic elements" in Jordan would jeopardize peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (Karmon 19 Nov. 1999), arrested Hamas militants and closed the organization's offices and journal in Amman (ibid.; Jewish Bulletin 1 Oct. 1999). The Jordanian authorities arrested two top leaders of Hamas, Khaled Masha'al and Ibrahim Ghosheh, on their return from a visit to Iran, in mid-September 1999 (ibid.; al-Jazeera TV 22 Sept. 1999). The Hamas leaders were accused of belonging to an "illegal organization" as well as storing weapons, conducting military exercises and using Jordan as a training base (Karmon 19 Nov. 1999; Jordan Times 18 Sept. 1999). On 22 November 1999 Jordan King Abdullah II issued a pardon to 25 officials of the "militant Palestinian group Hamas"(Indian Express 22 Nov. 1999). Five of the prisoners released were sent in exile to Qatar (ibid.). The authorities warned that firm action would be taken if the Palestinian organization resumed its activities on Jordanian soil (ibid.).
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Al-Jazeera TV [Doha, in Arabic]. 22 September 1999. "Hamas Leaders Arrested on Arrival in Amman." (BBC Worldwide Monitoring 22 Sept. 1999/NEXIS)
Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA). 1 October 1999. Gil Sedan. "Jordan's King Puts his Foot Down on Hamas Activity."
Indian Express [Bombay]. 22 November 1999. "Jordan King Pardons 25 Hamas Officials; Deports Four to Qatar."
Jordan Times [Amman, in English]. 18 September 1999. Tariq Ayyub. "Jordanian Official Details Hamas' 'Illegal' Acts." (FBIS-NES-1999-0918 18 Sep. 1999/WNC)
Karmon, Ely. 19 November 1999. "Hamas Terrorism Strategy: Operational Limitations and Political Constraints." International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism."
Additional Sources Consulted
Internet sources including:
Country Reports 1999
Derechos – Human Rights. Human Rights in Jordan
Human Rights Watch (HRW)
The Jordan Times [Amman]