Country Reports on Terrorism 2012 - Nepal
|Publisher||United States Department of State|
|Publication Date||30 May 2013|
|Cite as||United States Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2012 - Nepal, 30 May 2013, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/51a86e7a3d6.html [accessed 24 October 2016]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Overview: Nepal experienced no significant acts of international terrorism in 2012, although Nepal's open border with India and weak controls at Kathmandu's Tribhuvan International Airport raised concerns. On September 6, the Department of State revoked the designations of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (CPN(M)) under E.O. 13224 and as a "terrorist organization" from the Terrorist Exclusion List under the Immigration and Nationality Act, after the Department determined that the CPN(M) was no longer engaged in terrorist activity that threatened the security of U.S. nationals or U.S. foreign policy. (Note: the CPN(M) split into two successor parties in June 2012.)
2012 Terrorist Incidents: More than 47 improvised explosive devices (IEDs) detonated in 2012, but the majority of these incidents had no or few casualties. There were, however, two exceptions:
On February 27, three people were killed and seven people were injured in Kathmandu when an IED was detonated outside the gate of the Nepal Oil Corporation. In March, police arrested six individuals suspected to have close links to the United Ethnic Liberation Front Nepal (UELFN), which claimed responsibility for the bombing.
On April 30, an IED attack in Janakpur targeted participants at a sit-in protest demanding representation in negotiations over a new federal constitution. The blast killed four and injured two dozen others. The Janatantrik Tarai Mukti Morcha claimed responsibility for the bombing.
Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: Other than the ULEFN suspects, described above, there were no arrests or prosecutions of known terrorists in 2012. An open border with India, relatively weak airport security, and rampant corruption remained deterrents to more effective counterterrorism policing. The United States sponsored or hosted capacity-building programs for Nepali security forces, including 14 training courses to Nepali law enforcement, through the Department of State's Antiterrorism Assistance program.
Countering Terrorist Finance: Nepal is a member of the Asia/Pacific Group (APG) on Money Laundering, a Financial Action Task Force (FATF)-style regional body. Nepal has taken a number of steps toward compliance with the requirements of APG. In June, the government passed ordinances on Mutual Legal Assistance and Extradition, as required by the FATF, but did not pass legislation covering organized crime. The FATF has also recommended that Nepal amend its Anti-Money Laundering Act, and a draft was reportedly being finalized at year's end. A group of government finance experts has been working to finish draft legislation that would replace the 2008 Assets Laundering Protection Act. Nepal did not prosecute any terrorist financing cases in 2012.
The Government of Nepal implemented UNSCRs 1267/1989, 1988, and 1373 through Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB)-issued directives to the banking and financial sector. The NRB licenses and monitors money and business services that receive remittances. The Financial Regulation Control Act allows only banks and financial institutions (BFI) registered with the NRB to engage in receiving foreign currency transfers (and only banks are allowed to open letters of credit to remit currency overseas). Any transactions by unauthorized BFIs to transfer or receive money (such as hundi or hawala) are considered a criminal money laundering offense, but it is difficult for the government to investigate these informal money transfer systems.
Non-profit organizations are not covered by NRB Financial Information Unit directives, unless they are involved in money laundering or terrorist financing. The Government of Nepal approved a National Strategy and Action Plan for anti-money laundering/combating the financing of terrorism and was working on new laws and supervisory systems to cover non-profit organizations and other non-financial actors gradually. It may take two to three years before nonprofit organizations will be fully covered and monitored.
For further information on money laundering and financial crimes, we refer you to the 2013 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), Volume 2, Money Laundering and Financial Crimes: http://www.state.gov/j/inl/rls/nrcrpt/index.htm.